Sunday, August 23, 2020

Collegial and Formal Type of Leadership

Collegial and Formal Type of Leadership This task comprises of two sections. In the initial segment, the models of collegial and formal sort of administration are thought of and contrasted with the head instructors job to which the creator is recognizable inside the instructive arrangement of Cyprus. The head educators job will be dissected both authority styles. In the subsequent part, the creator focuses on the suppositions made about the school association and its qualities with the collegial and formal kinds of authority. The task closes with an end dependent on the creators comprehension of administration that rises up out of a thought of both hypothesis and practice comparable to these two models. Section 1 As indicated by Pashiardis (1995) the instructive framework in Cyprus has a bureaucratic structure and school principals are continually attempting to fulfill the officials as opposed to the requirements of understudies and guardians. Everything must be done in a pre-decided way, which scarcely departs any space for mistakes or gives room for deviation from the standard. This is the primary motivation behind why the conventional model of administration is being picked. The majority of the components of the executives fit into the bureaucratic structure of the Cypriot instructive framework. Then again, inside the collegial model of authority the administering body of each school is allowed to set extra points and targets that would profit the school network as well as the nature of the instruction advertised. Collegial Model of Management As indicated by Bush (1995) and his collegial model, the points rise up out of a participative procedure whereby staff arrive at an understanding dependent on normal qualities. The pioneer in a collegial model accepts that school staff ought to consistently be a group so as to be successful and that everybody ought to be associated with all exercises concerning the school rehearses. For this situation, all instructors ought to have a typical vision, set a strategic know about their job to guarantee the achievement of the scholastic endeavor. The components of Collegial Model are the procedures by which objectives are controlled by the idea of choice procedure and the initiative style. The collegial model depends on understanding objectives among the individuals from an association and presents parallel structures and all individuals reserve the option to partake in the choice procedure. As Kaily P. (2010) composed explicit issues can be tended to by various boards which are named toward the start of the school year. These boards of trustees comprise of educators as indicated by their capacities and skill. They embrace to address and take care of issues that emerge during the school year, for example, understudy discipline by figuring a set of accepted rules, savagery at school-avoidance and treatment, improvement exercises for inspiration in picking up, learning challenges and workarounds (Kaily P. E849 Web Activity 1, 2 November 2010). Moreover, Palli C. (2010) there is a common authority and an aggregate awareness of o ther's expectations among the staff at her school. Toward the start of the school year there was a designation of jobs and duties. Additionally the educators had the chance to choose the boards of trustees they needed to be individuals as per their inclinations (Palli C. E849 Web Activity 1, 3 November 2010). The best part of the Collegial Model is the way that objectives have just been concurred, coming about to the opportunities for the member staff to focus and to accomplish the objectives set. Everybodys aspirations, aptitude and abilities are mulled over and utilized in a manner that advances the government assistance of the school unit. As Bennett has contended, information is a significant force asset. Sharing information in a cooperative manner requires a high level of common trust and accord (Study Guide p. 37). Formal Model of Management Investigating Bush (1995) the proper models of the board affirm that destinations are set at the institutional level. Objectives are controlled by ranking staff and the help of different instructors is underestimated. Along these lines, the exercises of schools are assessed in the light of these official purposes. Moreover, the authoritative structure is viewed as target reality. People hold characterized positions in the association and working connections are thought to be emphatically affected by these official positions. Formal models treat structures as various leveled with dynamic as a top-down procedure (Study Guide p. 32). As opposed to collegiality, the qualities ofâ the formal administration modelsâ according to Bush (2003) heads haveâ authority in light of their positionsâ and areâ accountableâ for what they never really support they use anyâ rationalâ way to accomplish goalsâ‚ ¬Ã¢ ¦Ã¢ fits a ton to the Cypriot Educational System. Not exclusively do state funded schools yet additionally private ones have obligation decrease the executives projects and everything must be concentrated and economies of scale must be made. One is asked to every year report ahead of time what number of understudies are enrolled for the accompanying scholastic year that the quantity of instructors is decreased to the base to spare assets. In organization, productivity, discipline, control, reliabilityâ is increasingly significant (Weber 1989, p.312). Advancement is based on seniority (Bush 2003) increasingly like a common formal bureaucratic Cypriot school. In any case, after a long holding up at the age of 40-55 one at last leave from the low-paying Cypriot tuition based school and is utilized by a profoundly profiting Cypriot state funded school. At the point when he/she gets utilized at government funded school, will just discover only a couple of days before the school year begins, uncovering administration which is neither proficient nor solid. Section 2 As per Bush and Derek (2003) authority might be comprehended as impact however this thought is unbiased in that it doesn't clarify or suggest what objectives or activities ought to be looked for through this procedure. In any case, certain elective builds of initiative spotlight on the requirement for authority to be grounded in firm close to home and expert qualities (Bush and Derek, 2003, p.4). Wasserberg (1999) additionally asserts that the essential job of any pioneer is the unification of individuals around key qualities (Wasserberg, 1999, p.158). Besides, as per Gross (1985) values are produced remotely to the individual instead of being inside, individual manifestations. Anyway people assume significant job in setting up specific qualities with situations in which they live and work (Study Guide, p. 47). Shrubbery (1998; 2003) likewise connects initiative to qualities or reason while the board identifies with usage or specialized issues (Bush, 1998, 2003, p.4) Collegial model is interpinned by integrative and inspiring qualities. Integrative qualities are those that serve to bring people into collectivity and inspiring qualities are those that shape individual and aggregate view of necessities and interests (Study Guide, p. 46). The ramifications of these qualities for position of authority in the instructive framework in Cyprus could legitimized since head instructors typically urge the staff to partake in any dynamic method. Along these lines concurs for specific qualities the schools. In this manner closely-held convictions (instructors, guardians understudies) are worthy by others, contrasts and contradictions are appeared in a vote based structure. Likewise, coordinated effort is advanced by head instructors. Each instructor, parent, understudy has its own needs and interests. Head instructors attempt to help all individuals in close to home and expert troubles and offer courses with the end goal for everybody to have a job in the sch ool. Besides, head instructors advance trust and certainty among all individuals, offer helpful remarks and urge staff to partake in instructive workshops and other instructive projects. The proper initiative model consolidates for the most part administrative and order esteems which try to control the conduct of people and gatherings. The equivalent chances and race relations enactment is instituted in many created nations. Such qualities are a significant piece of the arrangement procedure both broadly and inside associations. Regardless of whether we acknowledge or dismiss somebody elses esteem framework isn't equivalent to denying that it is a worth which shapes their activities (Study Guide p.46). This is one of the three various types of Grosss grouped qualities which impact various aspects of the school.â Although the service of Education and Culture guides schools on the best way to work, each school may build up its own standards and qualities as per its specific needs and points. Under the direction of the Head Teacher certain qualities have been characterized for my schools culture like: Equal open doors for all youngsters as an outflow of essential huma n rights, the advancement of understudies social aptitudes, majority rule exchange in the event of contentions among the kids, the multi-dimensional improvement of childrens character, the significance of communication with the outside condition (guardians), and the act of various insights. All the above cultural qualities are enunciated inside the school serve to bring people into a custom. How my school is overseen advances coordinated effort and lessens struggle between staff. The head educator bolsters the endeavors of his instructors and persuades them to share and produce the schools esteems. He assists educators with adapting to the challenges experienced and advances regard, majority rule government, trustworthiness and trust. He urges instructors to partake in instructive courses and gives equivalent chances to interest in dynamic attempting to follow popularity based qualities. People assume a pivotal job in setting up specific qualities inside the situations where they live and work. Qualities are showed in the moves individuals make, including the things that they state and the language they use (Study Guide, 47).  According to Sergiovanni (2000), how we settle an issue identifies with the degree to which our dynamic is overwhelmed by the estimations of our lif

Friday, August 21, 2020

The Narrator as Literary Device in “Luck,” by Mark Twain

Imprint Twain utilizes the storyteller as an abstract gadget in his short story, â€Å"Luck.†Ã‚ The writer first uses his own voice to give the story a demeanor of authenticity.â He at that point changes storytellers, expanding on the first quality of realness to make a second bona fide narrator.â By utilizing the scholarly gadget of a first individual perspective for the two storytellers, Twain can control not just the activities that happen in the story, yet he is additionally ready to control the reader’s comprehension of, and their assessment of, the characters and occasions in the story. The storyteller that a writer picks makes the viewpoint of the story.â The storyteller is seldom equal with the writer; in any case, it's anything but an incomprehensible event for the two to be identical.â Twain is quickly the storyteller of this story, given that he controls the readers’ point of view by pronouncing this story to be a genuine one and not â€Å"a extravagant sketch† (Twain page). He builds this validness by marking his initials to the announcement, along these lines infusing himself into the activity of the story.â Because this training is definitely not a typical one in anecdotal stories, despite the fact that it was progressively regular at the time that this story was composed than it is currently, Twain’s â€Å"appearance† in his own anecdotal work gives it a recommendation of being a work of verifiable. The main individual storyteller that Twain decides to recount to most of the story is apparently an anonymous priest, some time ago a â€Å"cornet† (second lieutenant) in the British armed force under a lieutenant-general the primary storyteller gives the nom de plume Simply by setting the fiction of the requirement for an alias the lieutenant general, Twain has made the proposal of strict truth for the tale going to follow.â The subsequent storyteller, nonetheless, is a problematic one. By expressing that Scoresby’s achievement comes exclusively from karma, it is obviously clear that the clergyman’s conclusion would vary from that of the lieutenant general.â There is some inquiry with regards to why these suppositions would contrast, at any rate from the clergyman’s perspective.â While it should not shock anyone that Scoresby would surely want to describe his prosperity as getting from expertise, the pastor could have one of three explanations behind having an alternate opinion.â All of these reasons reach out from his insight into how Scoresby came to be an individual from the military.â First, it is conceivable that Scoresby is genuinely an uncouth, yet fortunate, man. The peruser is left to explanation behind oneself whether Scoresby might be that fortunate.â Twain depends on the information that numerous individuals have had astonishing karma in their lives, or know about individuals who have had such luck.â By neglecting to make reference to names of genuine fights and by neglecting to give the â€Å"real† name of the lieutenant general being referred to, the arrangement of occasions may appear to be conceivable. Second, minister may be working from a sentiment of blame that he permitted Scoresby to swindle his way into the military without shouting out about his job in that cheat.â His blameworthy emotions may shading his point of view on Scoresby’s genuine successes.â After all, having gotten into a military school, it appears to be coherent that Scoresby may have taken in some commonsense information and aptitudes regardless of how he came to be enlisted. The storyteller seems, by all accounts, to be reluctant to recognize this reality, however.â Finally, the priest may be working from the longing to have his name connected to that of a fruitful man.â By crediting himself for getting Scoresby into the school while simultaneously maligning the lieutenant general’s own abilities and information, the minister makes himself increasingly significant in his own military roleâ€at least in his own eyes. Twain utilizes the job of the storyteller as an abstract gadget for controlling the reader’s point of view of the subject of the story.â By infusing a first individual storyteller into the activity of the story, Twain makes a circumstance whereby the reader’s discernment is effectively manipulated.â Ultimately, be that as it may, the peruser is left to settle on the realness of the story, because of the lack of quality of the storyteller.   In the end, the peruser must settle on the real job of both the storyteller and of the conceivable job of karma through the span of Lieutenant-General Scoresby’s profession. Work Cited Twain, Mark.â â€Å"Luck.†  Publication. City: Publishing House, date.

Monday, July 6, 2020

Commentary on the Poem Anthem for Doomed Youth by Wilfred Owen - Literature Essay Samples

The poem Anthem for Doomed Youth by Wilfred Owen was written during World War I in 1917, when Owen was recovering from shell shock in a war hospital in Edinburgh. Hence, Owen writes from the perspective of a soldier on a battlefield. The persona presents in this poem the effects of war on young male adults sent to war: their loss of identity and their premature death as well as, the indifference or even lack of respect of society towards their premature death. It could be suggested that the author is exploring the theme of the horror of war and the separation war creates between those who stay at home and those who thought: the so-called two nation effect. In order to convey these themes the author employs irony, aural imagery, visual imagery, repetition The structure of Owens Anthem for Doomed Youth is ironic. It is written in the form of a hybrid sonnet, as it combines the structure of the Petrarchan sonnet with the rhyme scheme of a Shakespearean sonnet except for lines 11 and 12. The Petrarchan sonnet is a variation of the Elizabethan sonnet as the fourteen lines are divided in two unequal stanzas. The Shakespearean rhyme scheme is ABAB, CDCD, EFFE, GG. One should note that Owen uses a half-rhyme for B. The fact that Owen uses the structure of a sonnet is ironic because these ones have traditionally a joyful mood and are themed around love. This is directly opposite to Owens poem which has a gloomy mood and is themed around war. The lines are written in iambic pentameter, as a line contains five pairs of syllables where the first syllable is unstressed and the second stressed. Except for line 2 and 3 where the stress falls on the first syllable in the first pair in each line. The structure of the poem is ironic and highlights the fatalism of war.The beginning of the second stanza brings forth a shift in setting, imagery, structure, tone and rhythm which contribute to the theme of the two nations. The first stanza talks about soldiers on the battlefields and their premature death whilst the second about those who stayed at home and are mourning the dead. The persona uses primarily aural imagery in the first stanza and visual imagery in the second one. The first stanza is an octet which is contrasted with the second stanza which is a sestet. The tone in first stanza where the persona describes war on the battlefield the tone is acerbic and condemning while in the second stanza where the persona describes war for those back home the tone is sympathetic and fatalistic. The tone is similar to the one in the poem the sendoff also written by Wilfred Owen. Furthermore, the first stanza is written in the present in order to make the horror of war more real to the readers as well as emphasize the fact that this is happening right now as we read this poem while the second is written in the future emphasize the fact that the death of these boys will never be forgotten. The rhythm of the poem should also be taken into account as it starts off with a quick pace, and then slows down throughout the poem, drawing to a slow and sombre close. This not only enhances the theme of the two nations but can also be associated with the attitudes of the youth who enrolls in the military thrilled to honor their country but soon realize the truth about war. Nevertheless, both stanza use rhetorical question on their first lines to which the persona goes on to answer in the stanza itself. What passing-bell for these who die as cattle? line 1 and what candles may be held to speed them all? line 9. These one question the readers and allows the readers step into a soldiers shoes, thus, increasing their emotional response to the lines following. The title used for the poem is ironic and instantaneously shatters the fantasized images of war contributing to the theme of the two nations. The poem is entitled Anthem for Doomed Youth., one should note that the word anthem refers to a song, patriotic in nature which is synonymous with praise for ones c ountry and support of its troops. In fact an anthem is a song that is supposed to conjure up feelings of love and honor for ones country. Owen contrasts it with the word doomed which implies that the soldiers are destined to die soon. Furthermore, the word doomed not only foreshadows the fate of these soldiers but also of the poem itself, as the persona seem to come to the conclusion that these deaths will continue to come. The word youth follows it which reminds the readers of the innocence, strength and vitality of these young soldiers. In addition, the long vowel sound given by the two words combined is intended to be melancholic and contrasting with the idea of strength. Thus, this title highlights the theme of the two nations as those back home sing Anthems to praise the honor and support the soldiers on the battlefields as well as highlighting the glamour of war while actually war is synonymous to the inescapable death of innocent young males. The title summarizes the poem a m ixture of thoughts related to religion and death, irony, and cynicism.Owen extensively employs figurative language in order to explore the theme of the horror of war. The simile soldier die as cattle line 1, the amount of deaths occurring on the battlefield is compared to cattle being slaughtered hence, emphasizing it large number and its repetitive occurrence, as though mechanical. Furthermore, the use of the word cattle evokes the lack of identity of the soldiers, the contemptuous of their death and the lack of emotion towards their premature death. A hyperbole is used in line 2: monstrous anger in order to exaggerate the fury of war and evoking the lack of rationality. This anger is personifies the guns creating the image of guns being completely out of control and appearing to take the upper hand on the soldiers. Hence, making the guns appear responsible for the deaths of these soldiers. It should be noted that Guns is a loud and rhythmic word, creating the impression that war i s fierce, like a monster. The effective use of onomatopoeia in stuttering rifles rapid rattle (lines 3), evokes the sound of guns and destruction as highlighted by the extensive use of r and t letters. The alliteration also presented by these words emphasizes the quick pace of war. The use of hasty orisons line 4 which means here funeral prayers leaves the readers with the certitude these soldiers will die. The persona contrasts the battlefield with religious imagery suggesting his condemnation of war as well as exploring the theme of the two nations. Weapons of destructions guns (line 2), rifles (line 3) and shells (line 7), are followed by antagonistic religious imagery orisons (line 4), bells (line 5), prayers (line 5), suggesting the personas condemnation of the war as deprived of morals. Who will commemorate these boys lives? There will be No mockeries no prayers nor bells nor any voices of mourning line 5 and 6, showing the lack of respect of society towards their premature de ath as no traditional religious ceremony will take place. The shrill, demented choirs of wailing shells, line 7, the hard and strong word shrill implies that the funerals were not quiet and peaceful. The aural imagery suggests once more, that it was not an appropriate way of saying goodbye. This line shows that the church has no place on the battlefields as the choirs are described as demented. The demented choirs also serve as personification for the shotgun shells which stresses the fact that the weapons are the ones controlling the situation and are going insane as well as evoking disturbing and frightening aural imagery of shells. Furthermore, the personification and onomatopoeia wailing shells implies the suffering and the irrationality of these soldiers deaths. The alliteration used in the last line of the first stanza sad shires suggests the suffering for relatives and friends back home in England countryside where many soldiers came from. The soldiers are not give the proper funeral rites, and instead are treated as if they were cattle on the Western Front. The funeral deprived of all sanctity on the Western Front is contrasted with the funeral marches at home. The sanctity of the life of these soldiers is recalled by those at home highlighted by the words candles line 9, holy glimmers line 11, and flowers line 13. The aural setting is contrasting: explosions of the shells, and at home, quite, sorrowful cries highlighted by pallor of girls brows shall be their pall line 12. This evokes an image in the readers minds of mothers, wives and girlfriends with tears streaming down their colorless faces, showing their hopefulness. The compassion and grief of relatives is evident in the lines 10 and 11 Not in the hands of boys but in their eyes / Shall shine the holy glimmers of good-byes. They are described as boys line 10, emphasizing their innocence and their naivety of the soldiers. This creates a very powerful and emotive imagery for the readers, showing h ow war has deprived them from a joyful life back home underlined by the use of the alliteration. It also replies to the rhetoric question put forth in the first line of the second stanza, what candles may be held to speed them all? line 9, it will not be candles but the holy last glimmer in their eyes will mark their passage from the living. The soldiers though appearing to die without identity and dignity on the battlefields will be forever remember by those at home as suggested by the use of flowers as a metaphor of their memories of the dead. each slow dusk (14): dusk speaks of finality, it shows how slow time passes for those who mourn a drawing-down of blinds (14): privacy for mourning families, indicating maybe that a coffin is inside, sign of respect for the loss of life. The final line of the poem an alliteration using the sound d, accompanies the drawing dusk over the battlefield where soldiers lie, and the drawing down of blinds in the houses where they are mourned, and th is appears to be a vivid comparison between the two worlds. In conclusion, Wilfred Owen’s poignant use of irony, figurative language and onomatopoeia in Anthem for Doomed Youth allows him to explore the two main themes of this poem: the horror of war and the effect on the two nations. Overall, the poem engenders a clear condemning message towards war. I believe this message to be highly relevant to society of War World I as propaganda and pro-war poetry was popular at the time which did not and could not reveal the truth about war as Owen did due to his firsthand experience.

Tuesday, May 19, 2020

Should Teens Get Forced Into Getting Plastic Surgery

Kara Woody English 11 Research paper March 22, 2017 Why Do I Look Different? â€Å"Mommy, why do you look so different from me?† The Little girl is only five and does not understand that her mother looks different from her, due to the fact she has gotten a lot of plastic surgery done to herself. Whose little girl wants to grow up and look beautiful, just like her mother, but doesn’t understand the risk of plastic surgery. When the little girl grows into a teen, she thinks she is finally ready to get her first cosmetic surgery done, a nose job. Her mother is all for it, since she has had plenty of cosmetic surgeries before, but is this perfectly team getting this for herself, where to make her think that society will see her†¦show more content†¦To these teens that think that plastic surgery is the â€Å"quick fix† to everything, they will never be satisfied with themselves. Teens that feel this way do not need plastic surgery to make them better, they need professional help, like therapist. Plastic surger y will not solve their problems. Another reason why teams get plastic surgery is because they see their parents have it, so they think they need it to feel normal. Teen see their parents happy with these procedures, which makes things thank that since they are happy with themselves with these plastic parts in them, that if they get it it will make them happy, and make them feel welcomed in this world. Some parents encourage their daughters to get plastic surgery, because that is what they think their kids want and need. â€Å"evidence to show that mothers plastic surgery may lay down a foundation of body insecurity for her daughter,† said Hesse Biber. Mothers should let their daughters decide what they want when they are older and can make their own decisions. Social media is another thing that pressure seems to get plastic surgery. We have a thing called Instagram models that are skinny and beautiful. These models usually have YouTube where they upload videos of their plast ic surgery journey. Instagram models get paid to do the surgeries and tell people and teens to get plastic surgery. Plastic surgeons give these models discounts toShow MoreRelatedThe Age Of The Cosmetic Epidemic1042 Words   |  5 Pagesthrough whatever measures to be plastic just like her. An overwhelming amount of Americans teens are choosing to change their appearance to fit into a highly unrealistic and unattainable standard of beauty that was created and forced upon us by our physically obsessed culture. There is no doubt that teens feel an enormous pressure to look â€Å"beautiful† and feel obligated to do whatever necessary to reach â€Å"perfection.† Contrary to what many believe, American teens, like most teens around the world, are actuallyRead MoreCosmetic Surgery : Plastic Surgery And Teenagers2046 Words   |  9 PagesAccording to â€Å"Plastic Surgery Teenagers†, â€Å"teenagers who want to have plastic surgery usually have different motivation s and goals than adults† (â€Å"Plastic Surgery For Teenagers Briefing Paper†). Thus, meaning that most young adults get cosmetic surgery, which is the reshaping of body parts to improve their physical characteristics. However, changing your physical appearance just because you want to or do not feel pretty enough should not be the case of spending all that money and time on a non-maturedRead MoreOutline on the Effects of Reality Tv Essay examples2040 Words   |  9 PagesOutline: Research Paper: Reality TV and its influence on the younger generation I. Introduction A. Media has a huge impact on how people truly see themselves, particularly in women and young female teens. Reality television has made the standards of beauty quite high these days and there is a definite change in society’s view on what is truly beautiful. Turning off the TV has simply become too hard when it comes to reality TV shows 1. Turning into their favorite movie star is becomingRead MoreThe Effects of Media on Womens Self Esteem Essay1198 Words   |  5 Pageshave on young girls, and ways to prevent the awful effects is necessary to understand this phenomenon. Most girls have played with a Barbie doll while growing up. But Barbie dolls are another example of the unattainable beauty image that is being forced on young girls. If Barbie were a real woman, her head would be the same circumference as her waist, so she would only have room for half a liver and a few inches of intestines (Page, n.d.). This would result in chronic diarrhea and death causedRead MorePlastic Surgery Is Becoming More Popular Every Year Essay1955 Words   |  8 PagesPlastic surgery is defined as the process of reconstructing or repairing parts of the body, especially by the transfer of tissue, either in the treatment of injury or for cosmetic reasons. With appearance becoming the number one factor in today’s society, plastic surgery is becoming more popular every year. Some may call it the â€Å"Kardashian Effect† or â€Å"Selfie Mania,† either way, social media and celebrities, have greatly influenced cosmetic procedures (â€Å"Statistics, † 2016). With this high socialRead MoreU.s. Media And Entertainment Industry Essay1785 Words   |  8 Pagescolored eyes, and light colored hair is superior in beauty. A prime example of how powerful westernization has become is Julie Chen’s forceful cosmetic surgery. Before Julie Chen became famous a talk show host she had minor jobs as a news reporter. In one of Julie Chen’s job as a reporter, one of her bosses told her that she should go get eyelid surgery because there was hardly an Asian community in the area and that her eyes made her look disinterested during interviews (Wade, 2014). WesternizationRead MoreHas Digital Manipulation Gone to Far?1393 Words   |  6 Pagesimages of females are being digitally enhanced, so is our appreciation for normal, healthy, beautiful, and attainable. Photoshop has gone over the top with how they make pictures look, so much that it’s negatively affecting vulnerable children, and teens with low self-esteem issues. One important justification for why people go through serious issues with their bodies like self-esteem, and eating disorders is because of the media. The media plays a huge role in our everyday life, and when a personRead MoreDemand for Beauty by Society6415 Words   |  26 PagesDaisy Gentiles English 9 Submitted by: Jan Paolo M. Lumpaz Grade 9-Einstein March 2015 â€Å"Demand for Beauty by Society† Thesis Statement: Beauty is in the eye of the beholder: A statement that can be heard many times over, but it seems that it should really say beauty depends in the eye of society. I. INTRODUCTION A. Definition of Beauty B. Society’s Perception of Beauty C. Statement of Purpose II. BODY A. Society’s early insight of Beauty a) Ancient Times b) Middle Ages c) 15th Century-19th CenturyRead MoreThe Beauty Of Beauty Pageants1840 Words   |  8 Pagesqueens, and the awards consist of tiaras, titles, sashes, and cash prizes. Society today, already puts tons of pressure on young girls, and the outcomes result in mental health issues. Why add more? These pageants for young girls are getting more and more popular. They should be banned because they cause health problems, over sexualize young girls, and display a false definition of beauty. Beauty pageants may seem harmless and fun, the audience only sees what goes on in front of the curtains. What goesRead MoreUAE Consumer Lifestyle Analysis42818 Words   |  172 PagesGeneration of Newly Thrifty UAE Consumers 3 Rental Rates Plummet Across the Uae, Adding To Consumer Disposable Income 4 Environmentally Friendly Consumers on the Rise in UAE 5 Consumer Segmentation 6 Babies and Infants 6 Kids 7 Tweenagers 7 Teens 8 Twenty-somethings 10 Thirty-somethings 10 Middle-aged Adults 11 Older Population 12 Table 1 Consumer Segmentation: 2005-2009 12 Table 2 Consumer Segmentation: 2010-2020 13 People 13 Population 13 Marital Status 14 Town Or Country 15 Table

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Organizational Behavior Trends Essay - 1565 Words

Organizational Behavior Trends Outline: 1. Definition of OB and related terminologies. 2. Role of decision making in OB environments. 3. Conflicts involved in decision making processes in organizations. 4. Rifts between managerial level staff and operations level workforce. 5. Stakeholders in decision making in a corporate hierarchy. 6. Self-inflicted ethical dilemmas and differences, causes for it. 7. Values and goals affecting causing ethical dilemmas in OB 8. Globalization and its strategic alliances. 9. Impact of technological advancements in organizational environments. 10. Techno stress and other stress factors in organizational environments. 11. Survey results of organizational†¦show more content†¦It would be nice if decision making was indeed a simple process and that a set of ethical principles was readily available for employees to plug in and walk away from, with a decision to be forthcoming. However, in reality that is not, nor will it ever be, the case when it comes to ethics and decision making. It is safe to say that decision making is one of the most important - if not the most important - of all individual and group efforts within an organization. Ethics are the rules, principles, standards, or beliefs that commonly define right and wrong. Ethics are involved in all facets of business from decision-making to budgeting, from personnel issues to leadership. Today’s managers must be able to see the ethical issues in the choices they face, make decisions within an ethical framework, and build and maintain an ethical work environment. Managers must be particularly sensitive to ethical issues because of their key role as a bridge between upper management and operating employees. For most employees, their manager is the only contact they have with middle and top management. As such, employees interpret the company’s ethical standards through the actions and words of their managers. If managers take company supplies home, cheat on maintenance reports, or engage in other unethical practices, they set a tone for their work groups that is likely to undermine all the efforts by top management to create a corporate climate of Show MoreRelatedOrganizational Behavior Trends1619 Words   |  7 PagesOrganizational Behavior Trends Outline: 1. Definition of OB and related terminologies. 2. Role of decision making in OB environments. 3. Conflicts involved in decision making processes in organizations. 4. Rifts between managerial level staff and operations level workforce. 5. Stakeholders in decision making in a corporate hierarchy. 6. Self-inflicted ethical dilemmas and differences, causes for it. 7. Values and goals affecting causing ethical dilemmas in OB 8. Globalization and its strategic alliancesRead MoreOrganizational Behavior Trends1159 Words   |  5 PagesIntroduction Organizational Behavior is the study of what people think, feel, and do in and around organizations. Organizational Culture is the basic pattern of common assumptions, values, and beliefs leading the way employees within an organization think about and act on problems and opportunities. Organizational Trends are patterns of change over time in some variable of interest. In this paper we will evaluate two trends in organizational behavior. The influence of ethics on decision-makingRead More Organizational Ethical Behavior Trends Essay1851 Words   |  8 PagesOrganizational Ethical Behavior Trends Value motivated ethical leadership is needed today. The world has such a diverse work force today, and managers must develop and empower workers to achieve organizational goals. One develops his or her ethics from his or her culture, ethnic background, and religious beliefs. 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Taxation Law ATO Interpretative Decision

Question: Describe about the Taxation Law of ATO Interpretative Decision. Answer: Case Study 1: Residence and source According to Oxford Dictionary reside means, to permanently inhabit, or for an appreciable time span, to reside, in or at a particular place. But in order to know whether Fred is a Australian resident for the purpose of taxation different tests will apply, which are used to find out whether a individual is a Australian resident or not. (Australian Taxation Office, 2011). If he satisfies any one of the 4 legal tests requirement he will be considered as Australian citizen: Residency Test: It is a Primary Tax Residency test for determining on whom and when tax is being levied and if a person doesnt fulfill the test of residency, he will still be taken as a resident of Australia. Abode Test: An individual will be believed to be a citizen of Australia, if the abode is of Australia, unless Australian Taxation Office is pleased that the individuals domicile is outside the nation. 183 day test: If an individual is there in the country for more than half 6 months, he will be considered as a constructive individual if Australia unless it is proved that the domicile of that person is not the country and there is no intention to be a resident of that country. Superannuation test: It says that Australian government employees working at an Australian post outside are to be treated as the residents of Australia (Australian Taxation Office, 2015). Residential Status of a person entering in Australia can be determined by studying Tax Ruling TR 98/17 which includes the situations under which an individual is seen as an Australian Resident. This Ruling gives the interpretation of commissioner within the definition of resident included under the ITAA act ('the 1936 Act'). There are various elements which aid in establishing the residential status of an individual which are as follows: Behavior and reason for ones Presence When family also resides in abroad because of work Buying and maintenance of assets in Australia Ordinary course of life being same as before entering in Australia and after i.e. Actions and Habits (Australian Taxation Office, n.d.). If a person is physically present for a long period of time in a country it would be considered consistent to reside in Australia. Normally 6 months are taken into consideration for determining the residential status of a person in Australia. It was held in the case of FCT v Pechey that: if a person had stayed in a particular country for a considerable time it will be assumed that he had a established or usual abode there( FCT v Pechey). The invisible intention element is being referred in the rule of 183 day test. Thus it is avoided by the Australian government and also it is seen that intention is the major element in deciding the residence of an individual (Wills, 1997). Therefore in the current situation Fred will be considered as a resident of Australia as he satisfies two tests requirement as mentioned earlier i.e. Domicile test and 183 day test as he lived for 11 months in Australia and have taken a house on lease for staying there and it was only because of his ill- health that he went back otherwise he would not have returned back. Case Study 2: Ordinary Income Californian Copper Syndicate Ltd v Harris (Surveyor of Taxes) (1904) 5 TC 159 In this case the court upheld that although transactions with a profit-making purpose is a well known principle, with regard to the question of taxable income where a investment owner wishes to earn it and get a larger amount for the same rather than the amount on which he originally took it over, the increased amount will not be regarded as assessable gain for the purpose of taxable income. Although it is founded that increased amounts earned by way of realizing or assessable by way of converting the securities where whatever is done is not simply a realization or exchange of investment but an enactment take place in whatever happens inside a business. There is a slight difference which departs the two classes of case laws that are impossible to explain and both the cases should be seen in accordance with their factual situations: the question to be decided in both total number of profit have inculcated a simple change of values by leaving a security because it is the profit earned in an occupation in doing or performing a act of earning profit (Australian taxation Office, n.d.). Scottish Australian Mining Co Ltd v FC of T (1950) 81 CLR 188 In this case it was held that as company is being engaged in the work of sub-dividing the work and other activities which take place inside the company so it has merely taken the essential pace to realize the land in the most beneficial manner as a result of which the profit is said to be non- assessable. In the regard of which it was held by another judge that, In my view the facts has to be secure enough before a court had to say that the company which has not bought or adopted a land for making profit by way of agreement to sale was employed in the job of giving the land and not simply realizing it, although company has taken immense care and took essential steps to realize the property in a better manner, the property has been taken and utilized for various uses which were not related to carrying out business activities. Decision given was used a landmark for the cases wherein it was held that simply realization of an asset was on account of capital in an enterprising way (Smith, 2003). III. FC of T v Whitfords Beach Pty Ltd (1982) 150 CLR It was held in this case that property which has not been bought in regular way of doing a occupation or differently for the motive of earning gain or doing sale including profit is merged into a job of dealing with such a land, with a drawback that the gains of such a deal are counted as earning, even though the gains should be calculated by way of giving acknowledgment to the price of the land at the time it merged and not by way of acknowledgment which was given to the cost of acquiring(Edmonds,2010). Statham Anor v FC of T 89 ATC 4070 In this case the court held that there are various governing bodies that support that a taxpayer who has a part of land which is a capital asset and who acquires the land in an enterprising manner can treat the profits from the realization as capital if the growth is nothing more than the Mere realization of capital assets. And also a growth involving 105 lots over 4 stages were held to be nothing more than mere realization of capital assets (Cooper Grace Ward, 2015). Casimaty v FC of T 97 ATC 5135 It was held that the sale of the taxpayer from the sub division arose from simple realization of a part of property of the taxpayer. Consequently, According to section 25(1) or 26(a) of ITAA (1936) any type of profit on sales will not be assessable. Therefore, it was concluded by the judge that as the business carried on by the taxpayer was not on land development as a result of which, the growth and sub division of Acton View was taken up step by step in reply to the emergencies of increasing debt and harming health. No logical plan was given for the subdivision of the property to increase the return.eve at the last assessment date 1/3rd area of the whole land had not been subdivided. In order to reach the view that the transactions were not done inside a business like fashion in regard to the fact that the individual who is liable to pay tax did not guarantee to take charge of the work apart from what was essential to assure the recommendation of municipal bodies of the upcoming plans of sub dividing or enriching the presentations of the peoples lots. Because as per the judge the person who is liable to pay tax took over and continued to hold Acton View for the purpose of Production or residence(Smith, 2003). Moana Sand Pty Ltd v FC of T 88 ATC 4897 Court in this case held that the scheme of earning gain which was taken into concern was not entered into for a predefined aim of making gain by selling the land which was took over as a part of scheme. Court established that it gave the judgment individually for the aim to absolve the suspension of the first part of Section 26(a). The words of Gibbs a jurist were consulted for the aim and words of Jacob in a case in which he made a reference to the being of a dual object as adequate to give an value the personality of a receipt related asset. Although inspite of the fact that the test was rejected it was upheld that the Court went no further than to engage this test in London Australia (Flynn, 1999). VII. Crow v FC of T 88 ATC 4620 In this case it was upheld that the leverage of different properties and the incidental sub division and selling of piece of property involve deals which were repetitious and planned manner and had characterteristics of a continuous occupation of property growth. The Tribunal was gratified that the person paying tax purchased and sold the property for the aim of earning profit. The Taxpayers activities properly answer the description of doing the business of property growth and profit therefore constitute income for the aim of sub section 25(1) (ITAA 1936) (Australian Taxation Office, 1996). VIII. McCurry Anor v FC of T 98 ATC 4487 In this case it was held that the profit from sale of any land was said to be assessable under section 25(1). The taxpayers entered into a profit making agreement or scheme which was a deal or a business. Their merge was related to trading and from it they make profit which has been expected. If a land is taken up in a course of business or as a result of deal for attaining or earning profit from its growth and sale that merge is not taken as investment and profit taken up from it is income for the purpose of section 25(1). In a case study, where taxpayers were not doing any business, the profit to be assessable must have been taken up from a transaction that can be described as a commercial deal. References: Australian Taxation Office, (1996). ATO Interpretative Decision, Australian Government. Accessed on 22nd Aug, 2016 from: Australian Taxation Office.( n.d.). Taxation Ruling TR 98/1, Australian Government. Accessed on 22nd Aug, 2016 from : Australian Taxation Office. (2011). Residency - the resides test, Australian Government. Accessed on 22nd Aug, 2016 from: Australian Taxation Office.(2015).Residency Tests, Australian Government, Accessed on 22nd Aug, 2016 from: Australian Taxation Office.(n.d.). Taxation Ruling TR 92/3, Australian Government,Accessed on 22nd Aug, 2016 from: Cooper Grace Ward Lawyers.(2015). Tax and GST issues with small property developments, Accessed on 22nd Aug, 2016 from: Edmonds, J.R.(2010). A Finding that a taxpayer carries on a business: what is required, related issues and what are the tax consequences?,Accessed on 22nd Aug, 2016 from: FCT v Pechey 75 ATC 4083 at 4086 Flynn, M.(1999). DISTINGUISHING BETWEEN INCOME AND CAPITAL RECEIPTS - A SEARCH FOR PRINCIPLE, Journal of Australian Taxation, Accessed on 22nd Aug,2016 from: Smith,A.(2003). PROPERTY DEVELOPMENT Land and Property, TAXATION INSTITUTE OF AUSTRALIA, Accessed on 22nd Aug, 2016 from: file:///C:/Users/Guest/Downloads/d020520030207_prop_development_smith.pdf. Wills, M. (1997). The Income Tax Implications of a Foreign Individual Contracting to do Business in Australia, with Particular Reference to the Concepts of 'Residence' and 'Source', Bond Law Review, Volume 9, Issue 1.Accessed on 22nd Aug, 2016 from:

Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Motivation and Organizational Behaviour

Motivation can be defined as a force that encourages and pushes an individual to perform to his fullest. Motivation is a very significant force that is required to finish a task or complete a goal. Motivation can be extrinsic like something that is done to earn a reward or avoid a punishment.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Motivation and Organizational Behaviour specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Cleaning the room to get a reward from parents is one example. It can also be intrinsic like something that is done if it brings pleasure and is enjoyable. For example taking part in a football tournament could be enjoyable and rewarding in terms of certificates and medals. I mostly get motivated with verbal praise rather than monetary benefits. Motivation can come in different types, and the one I find most effective is when someone believes in me and place all their trust on to me. I am a person who liked to get appreci ation when I put extra effort to meet targets. If I do not get appreciation, then I am more likely to lose motivation. I then feel that all my efforts have gone to waste as no one appreciated or even noticed the task I so brilliantly completed (Kinicki, 2008). I normally try to interact and keep a positive behaviour and attitude with my co-workers. I have learned that keeping a positive and friendly attitude is very important and leads to motivation. As people find me friendly, they always try to give me honest advice and correct feedback which motivates me. I believe that I was able to stay motivated because my co-workers have been supportive. I have seen such types of employees and know for sure how dissatisfied they are with their entourage (Pinder, 2008). My organization makes sure that employees interact with one another and that there is no one receiving special treatment nor is there anyone creating groups between employees. The organization believes that if employees work as a unit then they will be more efficient rather than working all by themselves.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For this purpose, they believe in job rotation. Every member of the organization gets to be a part of different teams so that he could spend time with them and get to know them. The organization believes that when the entire organization knows each other then there would not be any complaints or any jealousy for the others. The organization makes sure that all employees feel that they are equally contributing towards the success of the organization. There is no one small or anyone big. The organization where I am currently employed provides equal importance to each and every worker (Nelson Quick, 2008). More could be done as there is always room for improvement. The top management can play a vital role in motivating the employees verbally. I have noticed that some times the top management does not realise the power they have over employees. They are a source of information and employees look on to them as their idols. I speak this because that is how I feel and most of the members in my office feel. Employees tend to feel neglected when they are not motivated by management for putting extra effort at work. Their performance slows down ultimately affecting the output of the organization. Verbal praise from top management may allow the employees to become positive in every possible way. Reference List Kinicki, A. (2008). Organizational Behavior: Key Concepts, Skills Best. New York: McGraw-Hill Learning Solutions. Nelson, D. L., Quick, J. C. (2008). Understanding Organizational Behavior. Mason: Cengage Learning. Pinder, C. C. (2008). Work Motivation in Organizational Behavior. Hoboken: Psychology Press.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Motivation and Organizational Behaviour specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This essay on Motivation and Organizational Behaviour was written and submitted by user Lexie Pate to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.